ls -R

Unusual Tasks With File Listings

When you create a new GPG key it wants you to wiggle the mouse or pound the keyboard or do something to create enough entropy to create a well-randomized key. There is an easy way, and that is to use the ls command to recursively list every file on your system:
$ ls -R /
Do this in a separate terminal, and then you don't have to do silly tiring things like wiggling mice. While we're on the subject of the ls command, you can list multiple directories in a single command by using simple wildcards:
$ sudo ls -l /var/*/*/
You can skip over subdirectories, as this example shows:
$ sudo ls -l /var/.../*/
I'm sure I copied this one from somewhere-- It draws a nice ASCII file tree of all subdirectories of the current directory:
$ find . -type d |sed 's:[^-][^/]*/:--:g; s:^-: |:'

Find Duplicate Files

The sure-fire way to find duplicate files is by comparing MD5 hashes. This compares only the first 20 characters of the md5sum, but it still takes a long time. It's the most accurate method, so I don't mind the wait:
$ find . -type f -exec md5sum '{}' ';' | sort | uniq --all-repeated=separate -w 20
You can also compare file sizes, which is a little less accurate but a lot faster:
$ find . -type f -printf "%p - %s" | sort -nr -k3 | uniq -D -f1
I use the first method when I start accumulating a lot of sloppy backups, and have too many copies of the same files littering my backup servers.
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Thanks and Regards

Bhaskar Ramaraju

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